Course SyllabusBiochemistry

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                        Biochemistry Homepage

                           

                        Welcome to the Biochemistry course, part of the series for the Pre-Health Sciences Training Certificate. This course and the certificate are designed primarily for learners interested in preparing for and gaining entry to health-related programs and to help address the prerequisites for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). This Biochemistry course provides learners with a comprehensive overview of the chemical processes and reactions that occur in living organisms. It explores the fundamental principles of biochemistry and their application to the study of biological systems, including the function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as their role in metabolism and energy production.

                        The Biochemistry course is sponsored in part by the International Development Research Centre and the University of the Incarnate Word School of Osteopathic Medicine. Like all NextGenU.org courses, it is competency-based, using competencies based on the Association of American Medical Colleges’ Medical College Admission Test. It uses learning resources from accredited, academic, professional, and world-class organizations and universities such as Rice UniversityThis course was designed by Alixandria Ali BSc; Kabiru Gulma B. Pharm, MBA, MSc., Ph.D.; Marco Aurelio Hernandez, Ph.D., MSc; MSc; BSc.; Felix Emeka Anyiam, MPH, MScPH, DataSc.; Sherian Bachan MSc, BSc; Reisha Narine MSc, BSc; Aduke Williams BA; Sara Wildman, BSc; Carolina Bustillos MD, DiplEd; Rhonda Prudent BSc; Maryam Musa MBBS; Pablo Baldiviezo MD, MSc, DiplEd; 

                        For publications on NextGenU.org’s courses’ efficacy, see NextGenU.org’s publication page.

                         

                        There are twelve (12) modules to complete, which provide an introduction to:

                        • Module 1: Building Blocks of Biochemistry
                        • Module 2: Enzymes
                        • Module 3: Non-enzymatic Proteins
                        • Module 4: Carbohydrates
                        • Module 5: Carbohydrate Metabolism
                        • Module 6: Lipids
                        • Module 7: Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism
                        • Module 8: DNA
                        • Module 9: RNA
                        • Module 10: Biological Membranes
                        • Module 11: Aerobic Respiration
                        • Module 12: Bioenergetics

                        The completion time for this course is estimated at 76 hours, comprising 19 hours of learning resources, 39 hours of studying and assimilation of the content, and 18 hours of participating in learning activities and quizzes to assist the learners in synthesizing learning materials. This course is equivalent to 2 credit hours in the U.S. undergraduate/bachelor’s degree system.

                        The course requires the completion of all quizzes, discussion forums, and practical activities to receive a course certificate. Practice quizzes are available throughout the course and contain 10 Multiple-Choice Questions each. After you’ve completed each module, quiz, and learning activity, at the end of the course, you’ll have access to a final exam consisting of 40 Multiple-Choice Questions and a chance to evaluate this course. Participants have up to three opportunities to take the final exam and achieve the required passing score of >=70%. Once you’ve passed the final exam and completed the evaluations, you will be able to download a certificate of completion from NextGenU.org and our course’s co-sponsoring organizations. 

                        We keep all of your personal information confidential, never sell any of your information, and only use anonymized data for research purposes. Also, we are happy to report your testing information and share your work with anyone (your school, employer, etc.) at your request. 

                        Engaging with this Course:

                        This free course is aimed at students who have graduated from high school and want to prepare to become a health professional and/or pass the MCAT exam. You may also browse this course for free to learn for your personal enrichment. There are no requirements. 

                        To obtain a certificate, a learner must first register for the course and then successfully complete:

                        • The pre-test,
                        • All the reading requirements,
                        • All quizzes and pass with 70% with unlimited attempts,
                        • All practical activities,
                        • All discussion forums,
                        • The final lab activity,
                        • The final exam with a minimum of 70% and a maximum of 3 attempts, and
                        • The self and course evaluation forms.


                        To obtain credit:

                        • Complete all requirements listed above for the certificate, and
                        • Your learning institution or workplace should approve the partner-university-sponsored NextGenU.org course for educational credit, as they usually would for their learner taking a course anywhere.


                        NextGenU.org is happy to provide your institution with:

                        • A link to and description of the course training so they can see all of its components, including the co-sponsoring institutions,
                        • Your grade on the final exam,
                        • Your work products (e.g., discussion forum responses) and any other required or optional shared materials that you produce and authorize to share with them, 
                        • Your evaluations -- course and self-assessments,
                        • A copy of your certificate of completion with the co-sponsoring organizations listed.


                        To obtain a degree, NextGenU.org co-sponsors degree programs with institutional partners. To obtain a full degree co-sponsored with NextGenU.org, registrants must be enrolled in a degree program as a student of a NextGenU.org institutional partner. If you think your institution might be interested in offering a degree with NextGenU.org, contact us.

                        We hope you will find this a rewarding learning experience, and we count on your assessment and feedback to help us improve this training for future students.

                        Here are the next steps to take the course and earn a certificate:

                        • Complete the registration form,
                        • Take the pre-test, and 
                        • Begin the course with Module 1: Building Blocks of Biochemistry. In each lesson, read the description, complete all required readings and any required activity, as well as take the corresponding quizzes.
                        Required readings
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                            Peer Activities
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                                      Study Materials

                                      We've utilized the Quizlet platform to create specialized flashcards designed to reinforce and test your knowledge throughout this course. Simply click the links to freely access them. Feel free to browse through our other sets of flashcards. Dive in and happy studying!

                                      Required readings
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                                                    Module 1: Building Blocks of Biochemistry

                                                    Competency covered in this module:
                                                    • Peptides.
                                                    • Peptide bonds.
                                                    • Sanger’s strategy to determine peptide structure.
                                                    • Partial hydrolysis of peptides.
                                                    • End-group analysis.
                                                    • Insulin.
                                                    • Edman degradation.
                                                    • The strategy of peptide synthesis, the Merrifield method.
                                                    • Amino and carboxyl group protection.
                                                    • Formation of peptide bonds (fragment condensation approach.)
                                                    • Structures of peptides and proteins.
                                                    • Coenzymes.
                                                    • Hemoglobin.
                                                    • Pyrimidine and purine nucleosides.
                                                    • Nucleotides.
                                                    • Proteins.
                                                    • Functions.
                                                    • Shape and Composition.
                                                    • Protein Structure.
                                                    • The Folding Problem.
                                                    • Fibrous Proteins.
                                                    • Globular Proteins.
                                                    • Protein Denaturation.
                                                    • Causes of Denaturation.
                                                    • Process of Denaturation.

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                                                                  Module 1: Lesson 1: Amino Acids found in Proteins and Acid-Base Chemistry of Amino Acids

                                                                  Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                  Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                  • Identify the basic structure of the amino acid and peptide bond.
                                                                  • Analyze and predict the chemical properties of the amino acid side group.
                                                                  • Determine the amino and carboxyl-terminal pKa.
                                                                  • Predict the impact of the local chemical environment on the pKa of the amino acid side group.
                                                                  • Determine the charge state of an amino acid at indicated pH; including the pH at which the amino acid is a zwitterion.

                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 2 hours.

                                                                  Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                              Module 1: Lesson 2: Peptide Bond Formation and Hydrolysis

                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                              • Explain the chemical nature of the peptide bond.
                                                                              • Calculate the isoelectric point of a peptide.
                                                                              • Explain the reactions of amino acids and their impact on protein.
                                                                              • Analyze the importance of the reactions of cysteine-cysteine bonds.
                                                                              • Analyze the biological activities of peptides.
                                                                              • Compare the relative sizes of proteins.
                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  1 hour.

                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                          Module 1: Lesson 3: Protein Structure

                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                          • Explain how proteins are classified using their physical properties and how these impact protein functions.
                                                                                          • Explain the levels of protein structure, the bonds formed at each level, and the interaction/contribution of each level of organization to the overall protein structure.
                                                                                          • Describe the physicochemical properties of proteins.
                                                                                          • Identify the component and major parts of proteins.
                                                                                          • Describe the methods used to separate and purify proteins.
                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  2 hours and 15 minutes.

                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                      Module 1: Lesson 4: Denaturation

                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                      • Understand what protein denaturation is.
                                                                                                      • Explain the causes of protein denaturation.
                                                                                                      • Describe the process of denaturation.
                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 55 minutes.

                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                Module 2: Enzymes

                                                                                                                Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                • Enzymes.
                                                                                                                • Properties of enzymes.
                                                                                                                • Basics of enzyme catalysis.  
                                                                                                                • Enzymes: Activation Energy and Reaction Equilibrium. 
                                                                                                                • Classification of enzymes.  
                                                                                                                • Oxidoreductases.
                                                                                                                • Transferases.
                                                                                                                • Hydrolases.
                                                                                                                • Lyases.
                                                                                                                • Isomerases.
                                                                                                                • Ligases.
                                                                                                                • The Catalytic Activity of Enzymes.
                                                                                                                • Mechanisms of Enzymatic Catalysis.
                                                                                                                • Coenzymes.
                                                                                                                • Regulation of Enzyme Activity.
                                                                                                                • KM and Vmax Values.
                                                                                                                • The kcat/KM Criterion.
                                                                                                                • Biochemical Reactions that include multiple substrates.
                                                                                                                • Allosteric Enzymes.
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                                                                                                                              Module 2: Lesson 1: Enzyme Classifications

                                                                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                              • Describe the classification of different types of enzymes and understand their physiological role.
                                                                                                                              • Describe the basic properties of enzymes and their use as catalysts.
                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 2 hours and 15 minutes.

                                                                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                          Module 2: Lesson 2: The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts

                                                                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                          • Explain the function of enzymes as catalysts making use of energy diagrams for catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions.
                                                                                                                                          • Describe the principal mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis
                                                                                                                                          • Identify the principal characteristics and functions of coenzymes and their importance.
                                                                                                                                          • Describe how enzymes are regulated covalently and allosterically.
                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour.

                                                                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                      Module 2: Lesson 3: Enzyme Kinetics

                                                                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                      • Describe enzyme kinetics through equations and graphs.
                                                                                                                                                      • Explain how the Michaels-Menten model can be used to characterize enzyme kinetics.
                                                                                                                                                      • Describe why the kcat/KM criterion is important in enzyme kinetics.
                                                                                                                                                      • Describe how the multiple substrate reactions are classified.
                                                                                                                                                      • Determine if Allosteric enzymes obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics.
                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 10 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                Module 3: Nonezymatic Proteins

                                                                                                                                                                Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                • Structural proteins (collagen, elastin, keratins, actin, tubulin.)
                                                                                                                                                                • Motor Proteins (ATPases, Myosin, Kinesins, dyneins.)
                                                                                                                                                                • Binding Proteins.
                                                                                                                                                                • Cell Adhesion Molecules (Cadherins, Integrins, Selectins.)
                                                                                                                                                                • Immunoglobulins.
                                                                                                                                                                • Ion Channels (ungated, voltage-gated, ligand-gated.)
                                                                                                                                                                • Enzyme-linked Receptors
                                                                                                                                                                • G-protein Coupled Receptors
                                                                                                                                                                • Electrophoresis (Native PAGE, SDS-PAGE, Isoelectric Focusing)
                                                                                                                                                                • Chromatography for protein isolation
                                                                                                                                                                • Examining protein structure via X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
                                                                                                                                                                • Edman degradation for analyzing small proteins, Bradford Protein assay, bicinchoninic acid assay.
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                                                                                                                                                                              Module 3: Lesson 1: Cellular Function

                                                                                                                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                              • Describe the nonenzymatic functions of structural proteins, motor proteins, binding proteins, cell adhesion molecules, and immunoglobulins.
                                                                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 3: Lesson 2: Biosignaling

                                                                                                                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Describe biosignaling of ion channels, enzyme-linked receptors, and G-protein coupled receptors.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 3: Lesson 3: Protein Analysis Techniques

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe the various protein analysis techniques.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 13 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 4: Carbohydrates

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Monosaccharides especially D-Fructose, D-Glucose, D-Galactose, and D-Mannose.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Stereochemistry (enantiomers, diastereomers, epimers of monosaccharides.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hexose conformations (Haworth and Fischer projections of D-Glucose.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mutarotation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Oxidation and reduction of monosaccharides (Tollens' reagent, Benedict's reagent.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Esterification and phosphorylation of monosaccharides.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Glycoside formation, glycosidic linkage formation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Homoglycans.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Heteroglycans.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Glycoconjugates.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Proteoglycans.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Glycoproteins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mnemonic for carbohydrate configuration.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mutarotation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ketoses.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Deoxy sugars.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Amino sugar, branched chain carbohydrates.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Glycosides.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Carbohydrate structure determination.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Oxidation and reduction of carbohydrates  (Benedict’s reagent), periodic acid oxidation of carbohydrates.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Isomerization and retro-aldol retro cleavage reactions of carbohydrates.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Module 4: Lesson 1: Classification of Carbohydrates

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Correctly classify carbohydrates according to their properties.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 4: Lesson 2: Cyclic Carbohydrates

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Describe carbohydrates that have five or more carbon atoms.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 39 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 4: Lesson 3: Monosaccharides

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe the different reactions of monosaccharides.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 3 hours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 4: Lesson 4: Disaccharides

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Identify the two monosaccharide units in a given disaccharide.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Determine the type of glycoside links present in a disaccharide structure.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Draw the structure of a disaccharide, given the structure of the monosaccharide units and the type of glycoside link involved.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Identify the structural features that determine whether or not a given disaccharide behaves as reducing sugar and undergoes mutarotation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Determine the products formed from the hydrolysis of a disaccharide.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 3 hours and 25 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 5: Carbohydrate Metabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • GLUT 2 and GLUT 4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Impact of blood glucose levels on GLUT 2 and GLUT 4 activity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Key steps (intermediates, reactants, products, enzymes of glycolysis; hexokinase vs glycokinase.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fermentation via lactate dehydrogenase.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Glycolysis in erythrocytes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Steps in Fructose and Galactose metabolism (intermediates, reactants, products, enzymes.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Acetyl-CoA.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The process and important steps.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Important enzymes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Oxidative phase.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-oxidative phase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 5: Lesson 1: Glucose Transport

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Explain the mechanism of glucose transport in the body.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 5: Lesson 2: Glycolysis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Describe the key steps in glycolysis, fermentation via lactate dehydrogenase, and glycolysis in erythrocytes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 45 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 5: Lesson 3: Metabolism of Fructose and Galactose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe the key steps in Fructose and Galactose metabolism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 48 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 5: Lesson 4: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Describe the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 15 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 5: Lesson 5: Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Describe Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 15 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 5: Lesson 6: Gluconeogenesis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Describe the process and important enzymes in glucogenesis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 5: Lesson 7: Pentose Phosphate Pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Explain the oxidative and non-oxidative steps in Pentose Phosphate Pathway.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 2 hours and 58 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 6: Lipids

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lipid types and structures.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Terpenes and terpenoids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Steroids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Prostaglandins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fat-Soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Storage of lipids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Saponification.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Required readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 6: Lesson 1: Lipid Classes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe the unique characteristics and diverse structures of lipids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Compare and contrast triacylglycerides (triglycerides) and phospholipids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe how phospholipids are used to construct biological membranes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 45 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 6: Lesson 2: Signaling Lipids

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Describe the different structures of terpenes and terpenoids, steroids, prostaglandins, and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Module 6: Lesson 3: Lipid Storage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Describe the storage of lipids in the body and the role of adipocytes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  21 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 6: Lesson 4: Saponification

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Describe saponification, its reactions, mechanisms, effects, and uses.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 10 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 7: Lipid and Amino Acid Metabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Digestion of lipids in the duodenum and small intestine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Micelle formation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Absorption.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mobilization and metabolism of triacylglycerols by the liver (hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lipoproteins, Apolipoproteins, Chylomicrons, Very-low-density lipoprotein, Intermediate-density lipoprotein, Low-density lipoprotein, High-density lipoprotein, Apolipoproteins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Citrate shuttle.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • LCAT enzymes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • CETP transfer process.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fatty acid biosynthesis (Acetyl-CoA Shuttling, Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase, Fatty Acid Synthase.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Triglyceride/triacylglycerol synthesis, oxidation (activation and fatty acid entry into mitochondria, beta-oxidation in mitochondria, Propionic Acid Pathway.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ketogenesis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ketolysis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Proteolysis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Transamination/deamination.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Glucogenic amino acids. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ketogenic amino acids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Urea cycle.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 7: Lesson 1: Lipid Digestion and Absorption

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Describe lipid digestion, micelle formation, and absorption.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 42 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Module 7: Lesson 2: Lipid Mobilization

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Explain the mobilization and metabolism of triacylglycerols by the liver.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 7: Lesson 3: Lipid Transport

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Understand the mechanism of lipid transport in the body.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 45 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 7: Lesson 4: Cholesterol Metabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe citrate shuttle, LCAT enzymes, and CETP transfer process in Cholesterol metabolism.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  36 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 7: Lesson 5: Fatty Acids and Triglycerols Metabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Describe the metabolism of fatty acids and triglycerols.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  1 hour.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Module 7: Lesson 6: Ketone Bodies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Describe the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 7: Lesson 7: Protein Catabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Describe the concept of breakdown of proteins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 3 hours and  25 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 8: DNA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nucleosides and nucleotides and names of nucleosides and nucleotides (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The sugar-phosphate backbone, DNA strand polarity, purines and pyrimidines, Watson-Crick model, denaturation, and reannealing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Histones.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Heterochromatin and Euchromatin.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Telomeres.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Centromeres.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Strand separation and origins of replication (replisome, replication origin, replication forks.) 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DNA replication in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes, semi-conservative replication, replication of daughter strands (leading strand, lagging strand, Okazaki fragments, primase, DNA polymerases, DNA ligase.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Replicating ends of chromosomes (telomeres).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (cancer, metastasis, oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, anti-oncogenes.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Proofreading and mismatch repair.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Nucleotide excision repair.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Base excision repair.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DNA cloning and restriction enzymes (recombinant vector, restriction endonucleases, sticky ends.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DNA libraries and cDNA.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Comparison of genomic and cDNA (expression) libraries.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hybridization (PCR, Gel electrophoresis, and Southern Blotting.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DNA sequencing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Applications of DNA technology (Gene therapy, Transgenic, and Knockout Mice.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Safety and ethics of genetic engineering.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Required readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 8: Lesson 1: DNA Structure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe nucleic acids and the role they play in DNA and RNA.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  1 hour.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 8: Lesson 2: Organization of Chromosomes in Eukaryotes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Describe the organization of chromosomes in eukaryotes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 1 hour and 30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 8: Lesson 3: DNA Replication

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Explain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Click here to start this lesson

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Required readingsOptional readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 8: Lesson 4: DNA Repair

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Describe the mechanisms of DNA repair.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  45 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 8: Lesson 5: Recombinant DNA Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe DNA cloning and restriction enzymes, DNA libraries and cDNA, hybridization, DNA sequencing, applications and DNA technology, and ethical considerations of genetic engineering.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  3 hours and 10 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 9: RNA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nucleic acids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Structure and replication of DNA.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Erwin Chargaff rules.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DNA-directed protein biosynthesis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Genetic codes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DNA sequencing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mechanism of transcription (helicase, topoisomerase, template strand, promoter regions, RNA polymerase II, TATA box.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Transcription factors, coding strand.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Post-transcriptional processing .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        •  Splicing (introns and extrons), 5' Cap, 3'Poly-A tail.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mechanism of translation (Initiation, elongation, termination.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Posttranslational processing (chaperones, phosphorylation, carboxylation, glycosylation, prenylation.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Operon structure.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Jacob-Monod Model.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Inducible systems (negative control, catabolite activator protein, positive control.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Repressible systems (corepressors.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Transcription factors (binding domain, DNA response element, activation domain.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gene amplification (enhancers, gene duplication.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Regulation of chromatin structure (histone acetylation, DNA methylation.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Required readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 9: Lesson 1: Nucleic Acids

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe nucleic acids and the role they play in DNA and RNA.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  1 hour.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 9: Lesson 2: Transcription Factors and the Preinitiation Complex (PIC)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Describe the preinitiation complex in RNA transcription.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Describe the role of the transcription factors in assembling the preinitiation complex.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  45 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Module 9: Lesson 3: Translation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Describe the process of translation (including initiation, elongation, and termination) and explain which enzymes, protein factors, and energy sources are needed for each stage.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  3 hours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 9: Lesson 4: Prokaryotic Gene Regulation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Understand the main mechanisms used to regulate genes on a molecular level via proteins, gene products, and signaling pathways.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Compare inducible operons and repressible operons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Describe why regulation of operons is important.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  1 hour and 15 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 9: Lesson 5: Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Define differential gene expression.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Distinguish between heterochromatin and euchromatin.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Explain how DNA methylation and histone acetylation affects chromatin structure and the regulation of transcription.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Define epigenetic inheritance.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe the role of the transcription initiation complex.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Define control elements and explain how they influence transcription.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Distinguish between general and specific transcription factors.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Explain the role of promoters, enhancers, activators, and repressors in transcriptional control.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Explain how eukaryotic genes can be coordinately expressed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe the process and significance of alternative RNA splicing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe the processing of pre-mRNA in eukaryotes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe factors that influence the lifespan of mRNA in the cytoplasm.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Explain how gene expression may be controlled at the translational and posttranslational level.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  3 hours and 25 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Module 10: Biological Membranes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Membrane structure and function.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Membrane dynamics (phospholipids, lipid rafts, flippases.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lipids (fatty acids and triacylglycerols.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Phospholipids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sphingolipids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cholesterol and Steroids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Waxes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Proteins (transmembrane, embedded, integral, peripheral.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Carbohydrates.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Membrane receptors.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Concentration gradients.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Passive transport (simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Active transport.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Endocytosis and exocytosis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Membrane potential (Sodium-Potassium Pump, Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz voltage equation.)
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 10: Lesson 1: Fluid Mosaic Model

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Explain the structure and functions of membranes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 10: Lesson 2: Membrane Components

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Describe the components of a membrane and membrane fluidity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  54 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Click here to start this lesson

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Required readingsOptional readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 10: Lesson 3: Membrane Transport

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Describe membrane transport in relation to concentration gradient and active/passive transport.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  1 hour.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 10: Lesson 4: Specialized Membranes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Explain membrane potential.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  1 hour and 10 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 11: Aerobic Respiration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Methods of forming Acetyl-CoA (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, ketones, alcohol consumption.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Purpose of the Citric Acid Cycle: key steps, intermediates, reactants, products, enzymes in the Citric Acid Cycle, and regulation of the cycle.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Structure of Mitochondria.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electron flow and complexes (NADH-CoQ Oxidoreductase, Succinate-CoQ Oxidoreductase, CoQH2-Cytochrome C Oxidoreductase, Cytochrome C Oxidase.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Proton-Motive Force.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • NADH shuttles (Glycerol-3-Phosphate Shuttle and Malate-Aspartate Shuttle.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Chemiosmotic coupling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Respiratory control.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Required readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 11: Lesson 1: Acetyl CoA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Explain the different methods of Acetyl-CoA formation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  15 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 11: Lesson 2: Citric Acid Cycle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Explain the purpose and key steps in Citric Acid Cycle.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 24 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 11: Lesson 3: Electron Transport Chain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe the electron transport chain in aerobic respiration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  39 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 11: Lesson 4: Oxidative Phosphorylation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Describe oxidative phosphorylation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  52 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 12: Bioenergetics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Competency covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Biological systems as closed systems.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Free energy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enthalpy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Entropy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Physiological conditions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ATP as an energy carrier.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hydrolysis and coupling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Phosphoryl group transfers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electron carriers (NADH, NADPH, FADH2).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Flavoproteins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Postprandial (absorptive) state (anabolism, catabolism.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Postabsorptive (fasting) state (counterregulatory hormones.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Prolonged fasting (starvation.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Insulin and glucagon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Glucocorticoids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Catecholamines.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hyroid hormones.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Liver.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Adipose tissue.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Resting muscle.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Active muscle.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cardiac muscle.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brain.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Analysis of metabolism (respirometry, Basal Metabolic Rate.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Regulation of body mass.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 12: Lesson 1: Thermodynamics and Bioenergetics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Explain the concept of thermodynamics and bioenergetics.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  45 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 12: Lesson 2: Adenosine Triphosphate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe the role of ATP as an energy carrier, its hydrolysis, and coupling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Required readingsOptional readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 12: Lesson 3: Biological Oxidation and Reduction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Explain electronic careers and flavoproteins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Click here to start this lesson

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Required readingsOptional readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 12: Lesson 4: Metabolic States

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Explain postprandial, postabsorptive, and prolonged fasting.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Click here to start this lesson

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Required readingsOptional readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 12: Lesson 5: Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Describe the roles of hormones in metabolism.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 12: Lesson 6: Tissue-Specific Metabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue, resting muscle, active muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  30 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Click here to start this lesson

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Required readingsOptional readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 12: Lesson 7: Integrative Metabolism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Student Learning Outcomes:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Describe cellular respiration, basal metabolic rate, and regulation of body mass.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute):  6 hours and 4 minutes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Click here to start this lesson

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